Dawakhan Hakim Ajmal Khan

Epistaxis (Ru’af)


Epistaxis or nosebleed is the acute hemorrhage of both nostrils and is a common complaint. Ru’af may seem serious health problem, but is rarely life threatening, however may cause some significant concern among parents of small children. Epistaxis can occur easily because of the location of the nose and blood vessels in it. The main purpose of nose is to warm and humidify the air that we breathe in. In most of the cases, epistaxis is caused by dry and cold air causing dryness of the airways. According to Hippocratic Journal of Unani Medicine, epistaxis symptoms including headache, palpitation, and vertigo, are due to repletion (imtala).

Causes Of Epistaxis (Ru’af)

  • Nose injury
  • Cold or flu
  • Blowing your nose with force.
  • Inserting small objects
  • Allergies
  • Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis
  • Nasal tumor
  • Nasal polyps
  • Dry nasal passages
  • Chemical irritants
  • Nasal infection
  • Deviated septum
  • Sinusitis
  • High blood pressure
  • Dry Climate

Symptoms Of Epistaxis (Ru’af)

The most noticeable symptom of a nosebleed is blood dripping from the nose. Common symptoms of epistaxis are:

  • Nose bleed
  • In the case of heavy nosebleeds, blood may fill up both nostrils.
  • Spitting or vomiting blood when blood flows down the throat.
  • Dizziness and confusion
  • Weakness in case of significant blood loss
  • In many cases, no specific cause for a nosebleed is found.

Nosebleed In Children

Most nosebleeds in children occur in the front part of the nose close to the nostrils. This part of the nose has many tiny blood vessels. These can be damaged easily. Nosebleeds are common in children. It happens more often in dry climates during the winter.

How To Prevent NoseBleeds (Ru’af)

There are several ways to prevent nosebleeds.

  • Use a humidifier in your house to keep the air moist.
  • Avoid picking your nose.
  • Limit your intake of aspirin, which can thin your blood and contribute to nosebleeds. Discuss this with your doctor first because the benefits of taking aspirin might outweigh the risks.
  • Use antihistamines and decongestants in moderation. These can dry out the nose.
  • Use a saline spray or gel to keep the nasal passages moist.

Steps To Treat A Nosebleed (Ru’af)

  • Remain calm
  • Sit or stand upright and lean slightly forward. This will prevent blood from going down the back of your throat.
  • Breathe through mouth
  • Pinch the nose with your thumb and index finger, just below the bony ridge of the nose.
  • Once the bleeding stops, don’t bend over; strain and/or lift anything heavy; and don’t blow, rub, or pick your nose for several days.
  • If bleeding has not stopped, apply pressure for 5 to 10 minutes.
  • After pinching the nose for 10 minutes, if bleeding has not stopped,  apply pressure again for 5 more minutes.
  • After 15 minutes, apply an ice pack wrapped in a sterile towel to the bridge of the nose, upper lip, or back of the neck. This may help to constrict the blood vessels and reduce the bleeding
  • After 30 minutes of continuous bleeding, seek medical attention

Single Herbs For Epistaxis (ru’af)

  • Cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum)
  • Nettle (Urtica dioica)
  • Emblic Myrobalan (Phyllanthus emblica)
  • Pomegranate Flower (Punica granatum)
  • Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L.)
  • Scarlet flame bean (Brownea grandiceps Jacq.)
  • Tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.)
  • Clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L.)

Unani Compounds For Epistaxis (Ru’af)

End Note: Unani medicines should be taken under the guidance of a certified Unani Physician. To get optimum results, patients are required to follow the regimen strictly.

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